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What are gallbladder diseases? What are the symptoms of the disease?


SThere are many conditions and diseases that affect the gallbladder. We will try to explain some of them below.


Gallbladder Stone

Gallstones occur when substances in the bile (for example, cholesterol, bile salts and calcium) or substances in the blood (for example, bilirubin) form vascular hard structures. The risk of gallstones increases when the gallbladder cannot completely empty its contents. These stones can block the ducts leading to the gallbladder or the bile ducts from the gallbladder to the duodenum. A gallstone can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a ping pong ball.


People with conditions such as:

Those who are overweight or obese

those with diabetes

Those aged 60 and over

Those who use estrogen-containing drugs

Family members with a history of gallstones

women

Those with diseases that affect nutrient absorption, such as Crohn's disease

Those with liver diseases such as cirrhosis

cholecystitis

Cholecystitis is the most common gallbladder disease. This disease manifests itself in the form of acute or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder.


1. Acute cholecystitis

Acute cholecystitis is usually caused by gallstones. However, sometimes tumors and various other diseases can also cause acute cholecystitis.

The first symptom of this condition is pain in the upper right part of the abdomen. The pain occurs after the patient eats something and manifests itself as a severe pain or a mild pain that radiates up to the right shoulder. Acute cholecystitis can cause the following symptoms:

High fever

Nausea

Vomiting

Jaundice

2. Chronic cholecystitis

After several episodes of acute cholecystitis, the gallbladder may shrink and lose its ability to retain and release bile. In this case, symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occur. Surgical intervention is often needed in the treatment of chronic cholecystitis.


What is choledocholithiasis?

Gallstones can get stuck in the neck of the gallbladder or in the bile ducts. When the gallbladder is blocked in this way, it cannot empty the bile. This causes the gallbladder to become inflamed and swollen. Obstruction of the bile ducts prevents the bile from reaching the small intestine from the liver.

Choledocholithiasis can cause:

  • Severe pain in the upper middle part of the abdomen

  • High fever

  • chills, chills

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Jaundice

  • Light or clay-colored stools

Acalculous cholecystitis

Acalculous cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that is not due to gallstones. It is known that a chronic or serious illness can trigger this condition.

Symptoms are similar to those of acute cholecyst. Factors that increase the risk of developing this condition include:

a serious physical trauma

Heart surgery

abdominal surgery

severe burns

autoimmune diseases such as lupus

bloodstream infections

Nutrition through the vein

Bacterial or viral infections

Biliary Dyskinesia

Biliary dyskinesia is a condition that develops when the function of the gallbladder is impaired. The word dyskinesia means "abnormal movement". It means that the gallbladder cannot perform its normal functions and cannot empty the bile. The cause of this condition may be inflammation in the gallbladder.

Symptoms include pain in the upper abdomen after eating, nausea, bloating, and indigestion. Pain may increase after a fat-rich meal. In biliary dyskinesia, there are usually no gallstones in the gallbladder.


This condition can be diagnosed through a hepatobiliary scan or a HIDA scan. This scan is a scan that evaluates bile ducts and gallbladder functions in general. The fact that the gallbladder can only empty 35% of its contents is a criterion for the diagnosis of biliary dyskinesia.


Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

Inflammation in the bile duct system can lead to the development of scar tissue, that is, scarring and hardening of the tissues. This condition is called sclerosing cholangitis. The reason for this situation is not known exactly.

Almost half of patients with this condition show no symptoms. Others have the following symptoms:

High fever

Jaundice

Itching

discomfort in the upper part of the abdomen

About 60-80% of people with this disease also have ulcerative colitis. Sclerosing cholangitis is a condition that increases the risk of liver cancer. The only known cure for this condition is liver transplantation.

Drugs that suppress the immune system and bile thinners help control symptoms.


Don't forget the stone is small

When the stones in the gallbladder are ignored; Inflammation of the gallbladder called acute cholecystitis, jaundice due to obstruction of the main bile duct, inflammation of the main bile duct called cholangitis, pancreatitis due to obstruction of the pancreatic duct, small intestine obstructions and even gallbladder cancer as a result of inflammation of the gallbladder wall for many years. Small-sized stones in the gallbladder can block the bile duct, and may cause more serious problems than large stones.


Avoid fatty foods and pastries

Especially excessive oily, fried type and pastry eating habits can cause gallstone formation. High cholesterol also paves the way for the formation of gallstones. Deterioration of cholesterol, cholesterol salts and water in bile can lead to the formation of stones in the gallbladder. If the patient reduces his water consumption, if his cholesterol rises, this ratio will deteriorate and accordingly stone formation begins. Therefore, a balanced diet is very important.


After the surgery, you can return to your home in 1 day and to work in 1 week.

If the patient with gallstones experiences one or more of the complaints such as stomach pain, gas pain, indigestion, bloating, weight loss, the treatment is surgery. In order to apply the surgical method, the stone should disturb the patient and decrease the quality of life. After the surgery performed with the closed method, the patient is usually discharged after staying in the hospital for 1 day. He can return to his daily life and work in 1 week. Since the liver will produce bile, the removal of the gallbladder does not cause any deficiency in the patient. Sometimes, patients may have indigestion complaints after the surgical procedure, but this situation improves with drug treatment. Patients who have their gallbladder removed are not given a special diet after surgery, and no restrictions are placed on the patient in terms of nutrition.


Skin intervention for elderly patients

If there is inflammation of the gallbladder in bedridden or elderly patients, surgery may threaten the patient's life. In this case, a catalytic is inserted into the patient's gallbladder by entering through the skin with a method called cholecystostomy. Bile is drained from the gallbladder and inflammation is eliminated. This method is generally used in elderly patients who are in poor general condition and cannot afford the surgery.

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